Pre-Columbian Mexico refers to the period before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century. During this time, several complex civilizations developed in Mexico, including the Olmecs, the Mayans, and the Aztecs. These civilizations built great cities, temples, and monuments. They also developed writing systems, mathematics, and astronomy. One of your ancestors may have been a farmer or herdsman who lived in Mexico during the Pre-Columbian period. Another of your ancestors may have been an artisan who made pottery or textiles.