Ethnicity and race are two concepts that are often used interchangeably, but they actually have different meanings. While they are related, they refer to different aspects of human identity. In this article, we will explore the differences between ethnicity and race from both anthropological and scientific perspectives.
Ethnicity vs Race: Anthropological perspective
Anthropology is the study of human societies and cultures. From an anthropological perspective, ethnicity refers to the cultural practices and traditions that are shared by a group of people. Ethnicity is a social construct  that is created by people who share common beliefs, values, customs, and language. Ethnicity is not biological, but it is based on social, cultural, and historical factors. An ethnic group may share physical characteristics, but these are not the defining feature of ethnicity.
Race, on the other hand, is a social construct that is based on physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. From an anthropological perspective, race is not a biological concept, but a social construct that has been used to classify people based on physical characteristics. The concept of race has been used historically to create social hierarchies to justify discrimination, oppression, and inequality. 
Anthropologists argue that ethnicity and race are not fixed categories, but they are dynamic and fluid. People can move between ethnic groups and racial categories depending on their social, cultural, and historical context. For example, a person who identifies as African American in the United States may identify as black in Brazil or mixed race in South Africa.
Ethnicity vs Race: Scientific perspective
From a scientific perspective, the differences between ethnicity and race are both, complex and controversial. There is a scientific consensus that there is no biological basis for race. Human genetic variation is continuous, and there are no clear genetic boundaries that separate people into different racial categories. While there are genetic differences between different populations, these differences are not significant enough to create discrete racial categories. Perhaps the most widely cited statistic about human genetic diversity is that any two humans differ, on average, at about 1 in 1,000 DNA base pairs (0.1%) 
However, some scientists argue that ethnicity has a biological basis. Ethnic groups are often defined by shared ancestry and genetic markers. For example, Ashkenazi Jews are an ethnic group that shares genetic markers and ancestry. The genetic markers that are shared by an ethnic group can provide insights into their ancestry, migration patterns, and history.
Ethnicity and Genetics
Certainly, genetics also play a role in shaping ethnicity, which is based on shared ancestry and genetic markers. Ethnic groups can be defined by genetic patterns that have accumulated over time as a result of geographic, cultural, and historical factors. Genetic markers can help identify a person’s ancestry and can provide valuable information about migration patterns and population history.
Genetic ancestry tests can help individuals learn more about their ethnic background and ancestry, but it is important to note that ethnicity is a complex and fluid concept that is not determined solely by genetic markers. Other factors, such as culture, language, and shared traditions, also play a critical role in shaping ethnicity. 
In conclusion, ethnicity and race are related, but they are not the same thing. Ethnicity is a social construct that is based on shared cultural practices, traditions, and language. Race is a social construct that is based on physical characteristics such as skin color and facial features. While there is no biological basis for race, some ethnic groups have a genetic basis that is associated with shared ancestry and genetic markers. Genetic ancestry tests such as Ancestrum can provide valuable insights into a person’s ancestry and heritage, but it is important to recognize that ethnicity is a complex and fluid concept that is shaped by social, cultural, historical, and self-identification factors.
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 Bryce, E., & Pappas, S. (2022, noviembre 3). What’s the difference between race and ethnicity? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/difference-between-race-ethnicity.html