Geographic Ancestry Test
Our geographic ancestry test analyses your DNA and, by means of a complex comparative study, we go back an average of 800 years, which corresponds to almost 30 generations, and we tell you in which geographical regions your ancestors were settled, based on a current geographical context.
Celebrity DNA Matching
Take our ancestry test and find out with which important people in history you are likely to share paternal or maternal lineage, by comparing the haplogroups of all the celebrities in our database and comparing your own.
Ethnic Ancestry Test
It’s not all about geography. Now you can learn about your origins from a different perspective. Ethnic ancestry offers a broader view from an anthropological and social approach and allows you to discover which ethnic groups you are most closely related to according to your historical origins. Ancestrum has details of more than 300 ethnicities worldwide.
Based on a haplogroup methodology, we analyse your mitochondrial chromosome, which is inherited exclusively from mothers to their sons and daughters, and compare it with the database containing all known haplogroups.
Thanks to our genetic ancestry test you’ll have a map of the evolution of your maternal lineage back to the first recorded mitochondrial haplogroup, known as “mitochondrial Eve”.
Similar to maternal ancestry, through a methodology of comparison with the database of all known haplogroups, we analyse the Y-chromosome, which occurs only in males and is inherited exclusively from fathers to sons, so that we can trace the historical paternal lineage back to the “Y-chromosomal Adam”, the first known Y-chromosome haplogroup.
* This section is only available for the male sex.
Historic Ancestry Test
Let us go much further back in time. From the Middle Ages to the Upper Palaeolithic, more than 12,000 years ago.
At Ancestrum ancestry test we compare your DNA with that of a large number of genetic samples from archaeological remains to be able to tell you the geographical areas to which your ancestors are related, throughout 8 major historical stages.
Neanderthal Ancestry Test
By comparing your DNA in our genetic ancestry test with that of samples obtained from archaeological sites, we can infer what percentage you share with Neanderthal man, one of the closest species to modern humans, with whom you coexisted for more than 40,000 years, and who became extinct more than 30,000 years ago.
How does it work?
Download a sample of our report
Frequently Asked Questions
1. How is DNA organized in cells and how is it inherited?
The whole of an organism’s DNA is known as the genome. Specifically, the human genome is organized into 23 pairs of nuclear chromosomes, which consist of bundles of DNA molecules and contain about 20,000 human genes. Among these 23 pairs, we find 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.
Of the former, we inherit 22 chromosomes from our father and another 22 from our mother.
In the case of the sex pair, we find the X and Y chromosomes, with the combinations XX and XY, in biological females and males, although there may be some exceptions in the number and structure of the sex chromosomes.
The Y chromosome is only present in males, and will only be inherited paternally to male offspring. On the other hand, the mitochondrial genome, which is maternally inherited exclusively to sons and daughters. Do not hesitate to contact our ancestry test company if you need more information.
2. What is a genetic marker?
A genetic marker is an identifiable genetic characteristic that allows us to detect and study variations in the genome. There are multiple types of genetic markers, which are used for different purposes.
Genetic variations, one of these types of genetic marker, are changes that occur in the genome of individuals, and can have an impact on some biological characteristic. These variations are what define individuals and population groups as such, allowing us to compare them genetically and carry out a multitude of analyses, among which we can find the study of your genetic ancestry.
3. How are the geographic regions distributed in the Ancestrum report? Is there more detailed information on some regions than others?
The reference database we use for our genetic ancestry tests includes an infinite number of samples from people whose ancestors have lived in a particular region for generations, so they have a high level of representativeness and reliability. These samples detail a broad set of regions, spanning the world’s geography throughout history, and reflect the genetic diversity that exists within them.
Although we cover the vast majority of the planet, the level of regional detail is not exactly the same in all areas of the world. However, our team performs multiple checks and adjustments in order to give a balanced and quality result. There are also some specific regions that are not yet included in the reference, but we are continuously working to complete it as much as possible in order to offer a better result.
In addition to this, it is important to note that the demographic history can be very different depending on the populations, and their mix with other population groups may have been greater or lesser. Those regions that have had less admixture are easier to define genetically than those that are the result of more complex genetic admixtures over time between different populations.
4. Do people of different ethnicities differ greatly in their genomes? How similar can the genomes of people of different ethnicities be?
The genetic differences that may exist between different ethnic groups or population groups will be related to the demographic history of each of these ethnic groups.
If their origin is common, if they have separated long ago or recently, if they have mixed a lot and have maintained contact, if they have been isolated, etc., are factors that affect the genetic variability between ethnic groups. In human populations, there is generally a very direct relationship with geographic distance.
The greater the distance between populations, the greater the genetic differentiation, and vice versa. In any case, it is important to bear in mind that the differences we are talking about usually reside in only about 0.1% of the genome.
5. What is a mitochondria?
Human cells belong to the group of so-called eukaryotic cells. This means that, among other things, they have internal structures specialized in carrying out their biological functions, such as digestion, nutrient storage, etc.
These structures are called organelles, and among them we find the mitochondria, which are specialized in carrying out cellular respiration in order to provide the cells with the energy necessary for their proper functioning.
Mitochondria have their own DNA molecule, and are inherited to the offspring from the mother. Therefore, to define your maternal haplogroup we study your mitochondrial DNA.
6. What is the Y chromosome?
The Y chromosome, together with the X chromosome, make up what are known as the sex chromosomes, since they determine sexual development. From a genetic point of view, depending on whether a person has an XX or XY chromosomal endowment, he or she will be a woman or a man, respectively.
In the pair of sex chromosomes we have, one chromosome comes from our father and the other from our mother. Since both males and females have an X chromosome, in females one X chromosome will come from the father and the other from the mother. In the case of the Y chromosome, only males possess it, so the Y chromosome is transmitted only from fathers to sons, and the X chromosome will come from the mother.
Therefore, to define your paternal haplogroup our ancestry test carries out the study of the DNA of the Y chromosome, so that, from its genetic information, it can trace the origins related to your paternal lineage.
7. Is mitochondrial DNA considered a chromosome?
Yes, but it has a different structure than the 23 pairs of nuclear chromosomes in the human genome, whose structure is a linear double helix DNA strand. In the case of mitochondrial DNA, it consists of a circular double helix DNA molecule.
8. How is my haplogroup determined?
A haplogroup is a set of mutations in the genome located in uniparental chromosomes, which are those that are only inherited from a single parent to the offspring: the mitochondrial chromosome and the Y chromosome.
Throughout human evolution, a multitude of mutations have taken place in the DNA of these chromosomes, which have been progressively passed on to the offspring until the present day. Each time a new set of mutations occurs in an existing haplogroup, a new haplogroup is created. In this way, the scientific community, based on a multitude of studies over the last decades, has been able to determine how and where the haplogroups existing today have originated from other haplogroups prior in time, thus being able to establish an evolutionary relationship between them.
Thus, to determine your haplogroup we compare the mutations that we detect in your mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome, and we proceed to compare them with a database in which we collect the possible haplogroups that exist and the set of mutations that define them, in order to check which ones we detect. Anyway, you will get more information about this in the ancestry test.
9. Why don't women have the Paternal Haplogroup category in the report?
The reason is purely biological, related to genetic inheritance. Females have an XX sex chromosomal endowment, while males are XY. This means that only biological men have a Y chromosome in their genome, inherited over the previous generations through the paternal line. Thus, females will never inherit this Y chromosome, so it is not possible to perform the analysis of their paternal haplogroup.
10. Among the celebrities in the Ancestrum ancestry test, are there any current celebrities?
Yes, in our database of celebrities we collect hundreds of celebrities, among which we include relevant historical and current celebrities. We are continuously working to increase our reference and to offer a wider variety.
11. What does it imply to have a higher percentage of Neanderthal, and is it reflected in any trait?
The percentage of Neanderthal present in the human genome is the result of different admixture events that took place between Neanderthals and modern humans over the approximately 40,000 years that they coexisted.
Your percentage of Neanderthal DNA and your traits are not directly related, nor do they evoke that your DNA is more or less ancestral, simply that your ancestors have had greater or lesser admixture with Neanderthals and, therefore, that the percentage of DNA in common with Neanderthals has been maintained in your ancestors over time and has reached you to a greater or lesser extent.
However, there are studies that relate certain genetic variants to the mixing that has taken place between Neanderthals and humans, and that some of them have been able to be maintained in humans up to the present day.
However, not all the variants involved are related to a functionality or trait in the organism. For the moment, our ancestry test does not give specific information about them and it only offers information about the global percentage of your Neanderthal DNA.
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